Linear time-invariant (LTI)

Linearity means that if you have two inputs and two corresponding outputs, if you take a linear combination of those two inputs you will get a linear combination of the outputs. An example of a linear system is a first order low-pass or high-pass filter. Linear systems are made out of analog devices that demonstrate linear properties. These devices don't have to be entirely linear, but must have a region of operation that is linear. An operational amplifier is a non-linear device, but has a region of operation that is linear, so it can be modeled as linear within that region of operation. Time-invariance means it doesn't matter when you start a system, the same output will result. For example, if you have a system and put an input into it today, you would get the same output if you started the system tomorrow instead. There aren't any real systems that are LTI, but many systems can be modeled as LTI for simplicity in determining what their output will be. All systems have some dependence on things like temperature, signal level or other factors that cause them to be non-linear or non-time-invariant, but most are stable enough to model as LTI. Linearity and time-invariance are important because they are the only types of systems that can be easily solved using conventional analog signal processing methods. Once a system becomes non-linear or non-time-invariant, it becomes a non-linear differential equations problem, and there are very few of those that can actually be solved. (Haykin & Van Veen 2003)

Common systems

Some common systems used in everyday life are filters, AM/FM radio, electric guitars and musical instrument amplifiers. Filters are used in almost everything that has electronic circuitry. Radio and television are good examples of everyday uses of filters. When a channel is changed on an analog television set or radio, an analog filter is used to pick out the carrier frequency on the input signal. Once it's isolated, the television or radio information being broadcast is used to form the picture and/or sound. Another common analog system is an electric guitar and its amplifier. The guitar uses a magnet with a coil wrapped around it (inductor) to turn the vibration of the strings into a small electric current. The current is then filtered, amplified and sent to a speaker in the amplifier. Most amplifiers are analog because it's easier and cheaper than making a digital amplifier. There are also many analog guitar effects pedals, although a large number of pedals are now digital (they turn the input current into a digitized value, perform an operation on it, then convert it back into an analog signal).

## Tuesday, March 31, 2009

### Domains electronicsjalil

Time domain

This is the domain that most people are familiar with. A plot in the time domain shows the magnitude of a signal at a point in time.

Frequency domain

This is the domain that engineers are glad exists. It's unfamiliar to most people, but makes the math associated with analog signal processing much easier than if it's analyzed in the time domain. A plot in the frequency domain shows either the phase shift or magnitude of a signal at each frequency that it exists at. These can be found by taking the Fourier transform of a time signal and are plotted similarly to a bode plot.

Signals

While any signal can be used in analog signal processing, there are many types of signals that are used very frequently.

Sinusoids

Sinusoids are the building block of analog signal processing. Theorem states that all real world signals can be represented by a sum of sinusoids. A sinusoid can be represented by a complex exponential, e^{st}.

Impulse

An impulse (Dirac delta function) is defined as a signal that has an infinite magnitude and an infinitesimally narrow width with an area under it of one, centered at zero. An impulse can be represented as an infinite sum of sinusoids that includes all possible frequencies. This definition is really hard to use in real life, so most engineers conceptualize it to a signal that is one at zero and zero everywhere else. The symbol for an impulse is delta(t). If an impulse is used as an input to a system, the output is known as the impulse response. The impulse response defines the system because all possible frequencies are represented in the input.

Step

A step function is a signal that has a magnitude of zero before zero and a magnitude of one after zero. The symbol for a step is u(t). If a step is used as the input to a system, the output is called the step response. The step response shows how a system responds to a sudden input, similar to turning on a switch. The period before the output stabilizes is called the transient part of a signal. The step response can be multiplied with other signals to show how the system responds when an input is suddenly turned on.

This is the domain that most people are familiar with. A plot in the time domain shows the magnitude of a signal at a point in time.

Frequency domain

This is the domain that engineers are glad exists. It's unfamiliar to most people, but makes the math associated with analog signal processing much easier than if it's analyzed in the time domain. A plot in the frequency domain shows either the phase shift or magnitude of a signal at each frequency that it exists at. These can be found by taking the Fourier transform of a time signal and are plotted similarly to a bode plot.

Signals

While any signal can be used in analog signal processing, there are many types of signals that are used very frequently.

Sinusoids

Sinusoids are the building block of analog signal processing. Theorem states that all real world signals can be represented by a sum of sinusoids. A sinusoid can be represented by a complex exponential, e^{st}.

Impulse

An impulse (Dirac delta function) is defined as a signal that has an infinite magnitude and an infinitesimally narrow width with an area under it of one, centered at zero. An impulse can be represented as an infinite sum of sinusoids that includes all possible frequencies. This definition is really hard to use in real life, so most engineers conceptualize it to a signal that is one at zero and zero everywhere else. The symbol for an impulse is delta(t). If an impulse is used as an input to a system, the output is known as the impulse response. The impulse response defines the system because all possible frequencies are represented in the input.

Step

A step function is a signal that has a magnitude of zero before zero and a magnitude of one after zero. The symbol for a step is u(t). If a step is used as the input to a system, the output is called the step response. The step response shows how a system responds to a sudden input, similar to turning on a switch. The period before the output stabilizes is called the transient part of a signal. The step response can be multiplied with other signals to show how the system responds when an input is suddenly turned on.

### What are the Tools used in analog signal processing ?

A system's behavior can be mathematically modeled and is represented in the time domain as h(t) and in the frequency domain as H(s), where s is a complex number in the form of s=a+ib, or s=a+jb in electrical engineering terms (electrical engineers use j because current is represented by the variable i). Input signals are usually called x(t) or X(s) and output signals are usually called y(t) or Y(s).

Convolution

Convolution is the basic concept in signal processing that states an input signal can be combined with the system's function to find the output signal. The symbol for convolution is *.

That is the convolution integral and is used to find the convolution of a signal and a system; typically a = -∞ and b = +∞.

Fourier transform

The Fourier transform is a function that transforms a signal or system in the time domain into the frequency domain, but it only works for certain ones. The constraint on which systems or signals can be transformed by the Fourier Transform is that:

This is the Fourier transform integral:

Most of the time the Fourier transform integral isn't used to determine the transform. Usually a table of transform pairs is used to find the Fourier transform of a signal or system. The inverse Fourier transform is used to go from frequency domain to time domain:

Each signal or system that can be transformed has a unique Fourier transform; there is only one time signal and one frequency signal that goes together.

Laplace transform

The Laplace transform is a generalized Fourier transform. It allows a transform of any system or signal because it is a transform into the complex plane instead of just the jω line like the Fourier transform. The major difference is that the Laplace transform has a region of convergence for which the transform is valid. This implies that a signal in frequency may have more than one signal in time; the correct time signal for the transform is determined by the region of convergence. If the region of convergence includes the jω axis, jω can be substituted into the Laplace transform for s and it's the same as the Fourier transform. The Laplace transform is:

and the inverse Laplace transform is:

Bode plots

Bode plots are plots of magnitude vs. frequency and phase vs. frequency for a system. The magnitude axis is in Decibel (dB). The phase axis is in either degrees or radians. The frequency axes are in a logarithmic scale. These are useful because for sinusoidal inputs, the output is the input multiplied by the value of the magnitude plot at the frequency and shifted by the value of the phase plot at the frequency.

Convolution

Convolution is the basic concept in signal processing that states an input signal can be combined with the system's function to find the output signal. The symbol for convolution is *.

That is the convolution integral and is used to find the convolution of a signal and a system; typically a = -∞ and b = +∞.

Fourier transform

The Fourier transform is a function that transforms a signal or system in the time domain into the frequency domain, but it only works for certain ones. The constraint on which systems or signals can be transformed by the Fourier Transform is that:

This is the Fourier transform integral:

Most of the time the Fourier transform integral isn't used to determine the transform. Usually a table of transform pairs is used to find the Fourier transform of a signal or system. The inverse Fourier transform is used to go from frequency domain to time domain:

Each signal or system that can be transformed has a unique Fourier transform; there is only one time signal and one frequency signal that goes together.

Laplace transform

The Laplace transform is a generalized Fourier transform. It allows a transform of any system or signal because it is a transform into the complex plane instead of just the jω line like the Fourier transform. The major difference is that the Laplace transform has a region of convergence for which the transform is valid. This implies that a signal in frequency may have more than one signal in time; the correct time signal for the transform is determined by the region of convergence. If the region of convergence includes the jω axis, jω can be substituted into the Laplace transform for s and it's the same as the Fourier transform. The Laplace transform is:

and the inverse Laplace transform is:

Bode plots

Bode plots are plots of magnitude vs. frequency and phase vs. frequency for a system. The magnitude axis is in Decibel (dB). The phase axis is in either degrees or radians. The frequency axes are in a logarithmic scale. These are useful because for sinusoidal inputs, the output is the input multiplied by the value of the magnitude plot at the frequency and shifted by the value of the phase plot at the frequency.

### Analog signal processing statement electronicsjalil

Analog signal processing is any signal processing conducted on analog signals by analog means. "Analog" indicates something that is mathematically represented as a set of continuous values. This differs from "digital" which uses a series of discrete quantities to represent signal. Analog values are typically represented as a voltage, electric current, or electric charge around components in the electronic devices. An error or noise affecting such physical quantities will result in a corresponding error in the signals represented by such physical quantities.

Examples of analog signal processing include crossover filters in loudspeakers, "bass", "treble" and "volume" controls on stereos, and "tint" controls on TVs. Common analog processing elements include capacitors, resistors, inductors and transistors.

Examples of analog signal processing include crossover filters in loudspeakers, "bass", "treble" and "volume" controls on stereos, and "tint" controls on TVs. Common analog processing elements include capacitors, resistors, inductors and transistors.

### Cable manufacturers electronicsjalil

Some global producers of electrical wire and cable include (in alphabetical order): Belden, Cables RCT, Cords Cable, [Draka], Fujikura, Furukawa Electric, Hitachi Cable, Igus, Leoni, LS Cable, Marmon Group, Nexans, Pirelli, Prysmian, Southwire, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Tyco

### Electrical cable types electronicsjalil

Basic cable types are as follows:

Basic

• Coaxial cable

• Multicore cable (consist of more than one wire and is covered by cable jacket)

• Ribbon cable

• Shielded cable

Construction

Based on construction and cable properties it can be sorted into the following:

• Mineral-insulated copper-clad cable

• Twinax cable

• Flexible cables

Special

• Bowden cable

• Direct-buried cable

• Elevator cable

Application

• Wire rope (wire cable)

• Audiovisual cable

• Bicycle cable

• Communications cable

• Computer cable

• Mechanical cable

• Sensing cable

• Submersible cable

Basic

• Coaxial cable

• Multicore cable (consist of more than one wire and is covered by cable jacket)

• Ribbon cable

• Shielded cable

Construction

Based on construction and cable properties it can be sorted into the following:

• Mineral-insulated copper-clad cable

• Twinax cable

• Flexible cables

Special

• Bowden cable

• Direct-buried cable

• Elevator cable

Application

• Wire rope (wire cable)

• Audiovisual cable

• Bicycle cable

• Communications cable

• Computer cable

• Mechanical cable

• Sensing cable

• Submersible cable

### Electrical cables electronicsjalil

Electrical cables may be made more flexible by stranding the wires. In this process, smaller individual wires are twisted or braided together to produce larger wires that are more flexible than solid wires of similar size. Bunching small wires before concentric stranding adds the most flexibility. Copper wires in a cable may be bare, or they may be coated with a thin layer of another material: most often tin but sometimes gold, silver or some other material. Tin, gold, and silver are much less prone to oxidisation than copper, which may lengthen wire life, and makes soldering easier. Tight lays during stranding makes the cable extensible (CBA - as in telephone handset cords).

Cables can be securely fastened and organized, such as by using cable trees with the aid of cable ties or cable lacing. Continuous-flex or flexible cables used in moving applications within cable carriers can be secured using strain relief devices or cable ties. Copper corrodes easily and so should be layered with Lacquer.

At high frequencies, current tends to run along the surface of the conductor and avoid the core. This is known as the skin effect. It may change the relative desirability of solid versus stranded wires.

Cables and electromagnetic fields

Any current-carrying conductor, including a cable, radiates an electromagnetic field. Likewise, any conductor or cable will pick up energy from any existing electromagnetic field around it. These effects are often undesirable, in the first case amounting to unwanted transmission of energy which may adversely affect nearby equipment or other parts of the same piece of equipment; and in the second case, unwanted pickup of noise which may mask the desired signal being carried by the cable, or, if the cable is carrying power-supply or control voltages, pollute them to such an extent as to cause equipment malfunction.

Coaxial cable.

Twisted pair.

The first solution to these problems is to keep cable lengths short, since pick up and transmission are essentially proportional to the length of the cable. The second solution is to route cables away from trouble. Beyond this, there are particular cable designs that minimise electromagnetic pickup and transmission. Three of the principal design techniques are shielding, coaxial geometry, and twisted-pair geometry.

Shielding makes use of the principle of the Faraday cage. The cable is encased for its entire length in foil or wire mesh. All wires running inside this shielding layer will be to a large extent decoupled from external electric fields, particularly if the shield is connected to a point of constant voltage, such as ground. Simple shielding of this type is not greatly effective against low-frequency magnetic fields, however – such as magnetic "hum" from a nearby power transformer.

Coaxial design helps to further reduce low-frequency magnetic transmission and pickup. In this design the foil or mesh shield is perfectly tubular – ie., with a circular cross section – and the inner conductor (there can only be one) is situated exactly at its centre. This causes the voltages induced by a magnetic field between the shield and the core conductor to consist of two nearly equal magnitudes which cancel each other.

The twisted pair is a simple expedient where two wires of a cable, rather than running parallel to each other, are twisted around each other, forming a pair of intertwined helices. This can be achieved by putting one end of the pair in a hand drill and turning while maintaining moderate tension on the line. Field cancellation between successive twists of the pair considerably reduces electromagnetic pickup and transmission.

Power-supply cables feeding sensitive electronic devices are sometimes fitted with a series-wired inductor called a choke which blocks high frequencies that may have been picked up by the cable, preventing them from passing into the device.

Fire protection

In building construction, electrical cable jacket material is a potential source of fuel for a fire. To limit the spread of fire along cable jacketing, one may use cable coating materials or one may use cables with jacketing that is inherently fire retardant. The plastic covering on some metal clad cables may be stripped off at installation to reduce the fuel source for accidental fires. In Europe in particular, it is often customary to place inorganic wraps and boxes around cables in order to safeguard the adjacent areas from the potential fire threat associated with unprotected cable jacketing.

To provide fire protection to a cable, there are two methods:

a) Insulation material is deliberately added up with fire retardant materials

b) The copper conductor itself is covered with mineral insulations( MICC cables)

Cables can be securely fastened and organized, such as by using cable trees with the aid of cable ties or cable lacing. Continuous-flex or flexible cables used in moving applications within cable carriers can be secured using strain relief devices or cable ties. Copper corrodes easily and so should be layered with Lacquer.

At high frequencies, current tends to run along the surface of the conductor and avoid the core. This is known as the skin effect. It may change the relative desirability of solid versus stranded wires.

Cables and electromagnetic fields

Any current-carrying conductor, including a cable, radiates an electromagnetic field. Likewise, any conductor or cable will pick up energy from any existing electromagnetic field around it. These effects are often undesirable, in the first case amounting to unwanted transmission of energy which may adversely affect nearby equipment or other parts of the same piece of equipment; and in the second case, unwanted pickup of noise which may mask the desired signal being carried by the cable, or, if the cable is carrying power-supply or control voltages, pollute them to such an extent as to cause equipment malfunction.

Coaxial cable.

Twisted pair.

The first solution to these problems is to keep cable lengths short, since pick up and transmission are essentially proportional to the length of the cable. The second solution is to route cables away from trouble. Beyond this, there are particular cable designs that minimise electromagnetic pickup and transmission. Three of the principal design techniques are shielding, coaxial geometry, and twisted-pair geometry.

Shielding makes use of the principle of the Faraday cage. The cable is encased for its entire length in foil or wire mesh. All wires running inside this shielding layer will be to a large extent decoupled from external electric fields, particularly if the shield is connected to a point of constant voltage, such as ground. Simple shielding of this type is not greatly effective against low-frequency magnetic fields, however – such as magnetic "hum" from a nearby power transformer.

Coaxial design helps to further reduce low-frequency magnetic transmission and pickup. In this design the foil or mesh shield is perfectly tubular – ie., with a circular cross section – and the inner conductor (there can only be one) is situated exactly at its centre. This causes the voltages induced by a magnetic field between the shield and the core conductor to consist of two nearly equal magnitudes which cancel each other.

The twisted pair is a simple expedient where two wires of a cable, rather than running parallel to each other, are twisted around each other, forming a pair of intertwined helices. This can be achieved by putting one end of the pair in a hand drill and turning while maintaining moderate tension on the line. Field cancellation between successive twists of the pair considerably reduces electromagnetic pickup and transmission.

Power-supply cables feeding sensitive electronic devices are sometimes fitted with a series-wired inductor called a choke which blocks high frequencies that may have been picked up by the cable, preventing them from passing into the device.

Fire protection

In building construction, electrical cable jacket material is a potential source of fuel for a fire. To limit the spread of fire along cable jacketing, one may use cable coating materials or one may use cables with jacketing that is inherently fire retardant. The plastic covering on some metal clad cables may be stripped off at installation to reduce the fuel source for accidental fires. In Europe in particular, it is often customary to place inorganic wraps and boxes around cables in order to safeguard the adjacent areas from the potential fire threat associated with unprotected cable jacketing.

To provide fire protection to a cable, there are two methods:

a) Insulation material is deliberately added up with fire retardant materials

b) The copper conductor itself is covered with mineral insulations( MICC cables)

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